1. If a person drinks a large amount of water in a short period of time, he or she may die from water toxicity. ADH can help prevent water retention through interaction with target cells in the
a. anterior pituitary.
b. posterior pituitary.
c. adrenal gland.
2. A marine sea star was mistakenly placed in freshwater and it died. What is the most likely explanation for its death?
a. The sea star was stressed and needed more time to adapt to new conditions.
b. The sea star is hypertonic to the freshwater, and it could not osmoregulate.
c. The osmoregulatory system of the sea star could not handle the change in ionic content presented by the freshwater.
d. The contractile vacuoles used to regulate water content ruptured in the freshwater.
e. The cells of the sea star dehydrated and lost the ability to metabolize.
3. Organisms categorized as osmoconformers are most likely
d. found in freshwater streams.
e. found in freshwater lakes.
4. In addition to their role in gas exchange, fish gills are also directly involved in
d. the excretion of uric acid.
e. the release of atrial natriuretic proteins.
5. All of the following represent adaptations by terrestrial animals to drying conditions except
b. salt glands.
c. efficient kidneys.
d. impervious surfaces.
e. increased thirst.
6. The digestion and utilization of which nutrient creates the greatest need for osmoregulation by the kidneys?
7. Where and from what compound(s) is urea produced?
a. liver from NH3 and CO2
b. liver from glycogen
c. kidneys from glucose
d. kidneys from glycerol and fatty acids
e. bladder from uric acid and H2O
8. What is the main nitrogenous waste excreted by birds?
e. uric acid
9. Which organism(s) has excretory structures known as protonephridia?
e. both c anc d
10. Which organism(s) has excretory organs known as Malpighian tubules?
e. both A and B
11. Which organism(s) has excretory organs known as kidneys?
d. sea star
e. all of the above
12. What is the functional unit of the kidney?
b. vase recta
13. Which part of the vertebrate nephron consists of capillaries?
b. loop of Henle
d. distal tubule
d. Bowman's capsule
e. collecting duct
14. The transfer of fluid from the glomerulus to Bowman's capsule
a. results from active transport.
b. transfers large molecules as easily as small ones.
c. is very selective as to which small molecules are transferred.
d. is mainly a consequence of blood pressure force-filtering the fluid.
e. usually includes the transfer of red blood cells to the nephron tubule.
15. Proper functioning of the human kidney requires considerable active transport of sodium in the kidney tubules. If these active transport mechanisms were to stop completely, how would urine production be affected?
a. No urine would be produced.
b. A less-than-normal volume of hypoosmotic urine would be produced.
c. A greater-than-normal volume of isoosmotic urine would be produced.
d. A greater-than-normal volume of hyperosmotic urine would be produced.
e. A less-than-normal volume of isoosmotic urine would be produced.