Midterm Exam Psych 200 Spring 2007

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1)  During the first substage of the sensorimotor period, 1) __C____
  A)  babies begin to vary their behaviors in response to environmental demands.
  B)  babies do not yet form schemes.
  C)  infants apply reflexive behaviors rather indiscriminately.
  D)  behaviors are aimed at producing novel effects in the environment.

2)  Which of the following is supported by research on aggression? 2) __D____
  A)  School-age girls are less aggressive than school-age boys.
  B)  Hostile outbursts decrease over early and middle childhood.
  C)  Children become more physically aggressive with age.
  D)  Girls resort to relational aggression more often than boys do.

3)  Factor analysis is a statistical procedure that is used to 3) ___D___
  A)  express the examinee's position relative to a known sample.
  B)  calculate the amount of error associated with an examinee's score.
  C)  compare an examinee's score with those of a known group of subjects.
  D)  group scores on many separate test items into a few factors.

4)  ________ is a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation. 4) _B_____
  A)  Dishabituation
  B)  Habituation
  C)  Classical conditioning
  D)  Extinction

5)  David and two of his friends are playing when his mother brings them a plate of cookies. David is intent on making sure that he and his friends get an equal number of cookies to eat, even though his friend Max says that his mother forgot to make lunch for him that day. According to Damon's theory, David thinks of fairness in terms of 5) __D____
  A)  reciprocity.
  B)  benevolence.
  C)  merit.
  D)  equality.

6)  How does young children's nonsocial, parallel, and cooperative play change with age? 6) ____C__
  A)  The frequency of nonsocial, parallel, and cooperative play increases with age.
  B)  The frequency of nonsocial play decreases with age, whereas the frequency of parallel and cooperative play increases.
  C)  Nonsocial, parallel, and cooperative play become more cognitively mature with age.
  D)  The frequency of nonsocial and parallel play decreases with age, whereas the frequency of cooperative play increases.

7)  In middle childhood, children grow an average of ________ in height and ________ pounds in weight each year. 7) __B____
  A)  4 to 6 inches; 10 pounds
  B)  2 to 3 inches; 5 pounds
  C)  4 to 5 inches; 5 pounds
  D)  2 to 3 inches; 10 pounds

8)  By the end of the second year, a typical child's weight has ________ since birth. 8) __C____
  A)  tripled
  B)  doubled
  C)  quadrupled
  D)  quintupled

9)  Which of the following procedures offer hope for correcting hereditary defects? 9) ___C___
  A)  pedigree
  B)  anmiocentesis
  C)  genetic engineering
  D)  chorionic villus sampling

10)  Research reveals that when used often by parents, trait statements, such as "You're so smart," lead to ________ in children. 10) ___D___
  A)  mastery-oriented attributions
  B)  external attributions for failures
  C)  a persistent approach to learning
  D)  a fixed view of ability

11)  In Piaget's theory, the process of ________ is made up of two complementary activities: ________ and ________. 11) ___D___
  A)  equilibration; assimilation; accommodation
  B)  equilibration; adaptation; organization
  C)  adaptation; equilibration; organization
  D)  adaptation; assimilation; accommodation

12)  Children whose bodies lack growth hormone (GH) 12) ___C___
  A)  cannot have children of their own in adulthood.
  B)  grow to be small with oversized heads.
  C)  can catch up in body growth and then grow at a normal rate if treated early with injections of GH.
  D)  grow normally until the beginning of puberty.

13)  Chromosomes are made up of a chemical substance called 13) __D____
  A)  cytoplasm.
  B)  zygote.
  C)  mitosis.
  D)  DNA.

14)  By age 7, North American low-SES children are, on the average, 14) ___B___
  A)  comparable to low-income children in other industrialized countries.
  B)  about 1 inch shorter than the average for middle-SES children.
  C)  much more variable in size compared to middle-SES children.
  D)  no different in size from their middle-SES agemates.

15)  The field of human development is considered to be ________ because investigators in many different scientific fields engage in research in this area of study. 15) ___A___
  A)  interdisciplinary
  B)  empirical
  C)  applied
  D)  theoretical

16)  Two-year-old Viola sees a hyena for the first time during a trip to the zoo and calls it a doggie. According to Piaget's theory, Viola is most likely ________ the hyena into her dog scheme. 16) ___B___
  A)  equilibrating
  B)  assimilating
  C)  organizing
  D)  accommodating

17)  ________ is the aspect of the self-concept that involves judgments about one's own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements. 17) __C____
  A)  Generalized other
  B)  Me-self
  C)  Self-esteem
  D)  Inner self

18)  All the primary teeth are replaced by permanent ones by the age of 18) __A____
  A)  12 years.
  B)  3 years.
  C)  6 years.
  D)  9 years.

19)  The zygote's first cell duplication is complete 19) ___A___
  A)  about 30 hours after conception.
  B)  within seconds after fertilization.
  C)  about 30 hours after fertilization.
  D)  within seconds after conception.

20)  A lateralized brain is adaptive because 20) __D____
  A)  the duplicate processing of information reduces the likelihood of performance errors.
  B)  a person can still fully function if one hemisphere is severely damaged.
  C)  neither hemisphere is overburdened with the processing of information.
  D)  it can carry out a wider array of functions than if both sides processed the information in the same manner.

21)  The period of the ________ is the time when serious defects from teratogens are most likely to occur because ________ this time. 21) __A____
  A)  embryo; the foundations for all body parts are laid down during
  B)  fetus; birth takes place soon after
  C)  zygote; implantation occurs during
  D)  fetus; the prenatal organism is developing most rapidly during

22)  A(n) ________ is orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior. 22) __D____
  A)  hypothesis
  B)  theory
  C)  paradigm
  D)  premise

23)  Which of the following motor skills is believed to play the greatest role in infant cognitive development? 23) ___A___
  A)  voluntary reaching
  B)  crawling
  C)  rolling from back to front
  D)  holding head steady and upright

24)  Lewis can conserve liquid, but not volume. According to Case's neo-Piagetian theory, one explanation for Lewis' differential success would b e that 24) __A____
  A)  the processing demands of a conservation of volume task are greater than those of a conservation of liquid task.
  B)  familiar glasses were used in the liquid problem, whereas novel glasses were used in the volume problem.
  C)  he has a more advanced central executive in the liquid domain than in the volume domain.
  D)  he has much more experience manipulating volume than manipulating liquid.

25)  Three-year-old Donovan prints the letter D in his name backwards and seems quite satisfied with his erroneous creations. Which of the following statements is most likely concerning Donovan? 25) __A____
  A)  Donovan is developing normally, as many children reverse some letters in their printing well into the second grade.
  B)  Donovan's brain is less strongly lateralized than those of children who do not reverse letters in their printing.
  C)  Compared to children who do not reverse letters in their printing, Donovan is more likely to become left-handed or ambidextrous.
  D)  Compared to children who do not reverse letters in their printing, Donovan is more likely to develop dyslexia.

26)  Toxemia during pregnancy is caused by 26) ___A___
  A)  a sharp increase in the mother's blood pressure.
  B)  the mother's contact with the feces of infected cats.
  C)  extra sugar in the mother's bloodstream.
  D)  Rh incompatibility between the blood type of the mother and fetus.

27)  According to Erikson's theory, a mother who is sympathetic and loving is fostering her baby's sense of 27) __A____
  A)  trust.
  B)  autonomy.
  C)  self-regulation.
  D)  attachment.

28)  Research suggests that maturation of the ________ lobes of the cerebral cortex is largely responsible for gains in cognitive inhibition in middle childhood. 28) __C____
  A)  occipital
  B)  temporal
  C)  frontal
  D)  parietal

29)  During the ________ month of pregnancy, fingernails, eyelids, and thumb sucking appear. 29) __D____
  A)  fifth
  B)  seventh
  C)  ninth
  D)  third

30)  Which of the following is true regarding breast- versus bottle-feeding? 30) ___B___
  A)  Breast-fed babies are more likely than bottle-fed babies to be malnourished.
  B)  Breast feeding helps increase the spacing in age between siblings.
  C)  Most developing countries support the practice of giving free or subsidized formula to new mothers.
  D)  Bottle-feeding is becoming increasingly common in industrialized countries.

31)  Which of these influences has the strongest effect on the age at which children's permanent teeth appear? 31) ___B___
  A)  breast- versus bottle-feeding
  B)  prolonged malnutrition
  C)  the age at which infants begin solid food
  D)  environmental pollution

32)  The concept of ________ is characteristic of ________ theories. 32) __A____
  A)  stage; discontinuous
  B)  change; heredity
  C)  stability; stage
  D)  nurture; continuous

33)  Social referencing is 33) ___D___
  A)  thinking about the self, other people, and social relationships.
  B)  the use of a familiar caregiver as a base from which an infant confidently explores the environment and to which the infant returns for emotional support.
  C)  the process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts.
  D)  relying on another person's emotional reaction to appraise an uncertain situation.

34)  A person whose 23rd pair of chromosomes is XY 34) __B____
  A)  has Down syndrome.
  B)  is male.
  C)  has Turner syndrome.
  D)  has PKU.

35)  The Bayley Scales of Infant Development 35) __A____
  A)  tap different dimensions of intelligence than those measured at older ages.
  B)  are helpful in assessment of the newborn's adjustment to life outside the womb.
  C)  emphasize higher-order cognitive skills such as memory and problem solving.
  D)  show good long-term prediction of childhood intellectual functioning.

36)  Laura is a fussy newborn who has a predictable period of fussing and crying every evening for an hour or two. According to research on temperament, 36) ____B__
  A)  Laura is more likely than a calm and content baby to become a difficult preschooler.
  B)  Laura's may become a calm and content infant once she learns how to regulate her emotions.
  C)  Laura is likely to score high on irritability when assessed during the elementary school years.
  D)  Laura's negative temperament is likely to be stable even into the adult years.

37)  The likelihood of negative effects due to smoking during pregnancy 37) __B____
  A)  are not reduced unless the mother stops before the placenta begins carrying food and oxygen to the prenatal organism.
  B)  are reduced immediately if the mother decides to stop smoking.
  C)  are reduced only if the mother stops before the period of the embryo.
  D)  are not reduced if the mother stops smoking, because the damage has likely already been done.

38)  Theorists who argue that personality is determined almost exclusively by parents' childrearing style support which view of human development? 38) __D____
  A)  nature
  B)  discontinuous
  C)  continuous
  D)  nurture

39)  ________ are at the highest risk for poor school performance, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. 39) ___D___
  A)  Neglected
  B)  Popular
  C)  Controversial
  D)  Rejected

40)  When parents do decide to use punishment, they can increase its effectiveness by 40) ___B___
  A)  using it in public as young children are very embarrassed by being scolded around others.
  B)  offering an explanation regarding the inappropriateness of the misdeed.
  C)  allowing children to act inappropriately and blow off steam from time to time.
  D)  telling their children that they are using punishment as a last resort.

41)  Which of the following abilities provides evidence of infants' ability to engage in recall by the end of the first year? 41) ___D___
  A)  After habituating to a visual stimulus, infants' responsiveness increases when the stimulus is changed slightly.
  B)  Following training, infants remember for weeks how to rotate a mobile by kicking a foot tied to the mobile with a cord.
  C)  Infants remember for weeks how to make a toy train move around a track by pressing a level.
  D)  Infants can imitate the actions of others hours after they observed the behavior.

42)  In most right-handed individuals, the left hemisphere of the brain is primarily responsible for 42) __A____
  A)  language skills.
  B)  memory.
  C)  motor skills.
  D)  spatial skills.

43)  Which of the following is the best example of an age-graded influence in development? 43) __C____
  A)  Noah and his parents became homeless shortly after his father was laid off from work.
  B)  Nick moved out of the house and into a dorm when he started college at age 18.
  C)  Maria was adopted almost immediately after birth.
  D)  Melina was physically abused during toddlerhood.

44)  Young babies detect others' emotions through a fairly automatic process of 44) __C____
  A)  self-conscious emotions.
  B)  emotional self-regulation.
  C)  emotional contagion.
  D)  empathy.

45)  A ________ is a directly observable characteristic. 45) ___D___
  A)  genotype
  B)  chromosome
  C)  zygote
  D)  phenotype

46)  Most adopted children 46) __B____
  A)  were exposed prenatally to alcohol or illicit drugs.
  B)  become well-adjusted adults.
  C)  search for their birth parents during adolescence.
  D)  have trouble developing feelings of trust and affection toward their adoptive parents.

47)  Erikson regarded ________ as a central means though which young children find out about themselves and their social world. 47) ___B___
  A)  participation in social dialogues
  B)  play
  C)  joint activities with adults
  D)  parental modeling

48)  ________ emotions are universal and can be directly inferred from facial expressions. 48) __C____
  A)  Social
  B)  Concrete
  C)  Basic
  D)  Simple

49)  During childhood and adolescence, ________ correlates more strongly with overall self-worth than any other self-esteem factor. 49) _A_____
  A)  physical appearance
  B)  physical/athletic competence
  C)  social competence
  D)  academic competence

50)  According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of middle childhood is 50) _D_____
  A)  identity versus confusion.
  B)  generativity versus stagnation.
  C)  autonomy versus shame and doubt.
  D)  industry versus inferiority.