Study Guide for Chapters 9-12
Use these learning objectives to guide you in your study of this
Chapter 9: Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle
- Understand the changes in
body size, proportions, and skeletal maturity during middle childhood. (pp. 276–277)
- Identify common health
problems in middle childhood, discuss their causes and consequences, and
cite ways to treat them. (pp.
- What are the major
milestones of gross and fine motor development in middle childhood, noting
sex differences? (pp. 281–282)
- Understand the qualities
of children’s play during middle childhood, along with consequences for cognitive
and social development. (pp.
- Understand the benefits of
high-quality physical education during the school years. (pp. 283–284)
- Summarize the major
achievements of Piaget’s concrete operational stage. (pp. 284–286)
- What are the limitations
of concrete operational thought, noting challenges to Piaget’s findings? (pp. 286–287)
- Understand the
information-processing view of concrete operational thought. (p. 287)
- What are the two basic
changes in information processing that occur during middle childhood. (pp. 287–288)
- List three ways attention
changes in middle childhood. (pp.
- What is the development of
memory strategies in middle childhood? (pp. 289–290)
- How do the school-age
child’s knowledge base and culture and schooling contribute to memory
performance? (pp. 290–291)
- Understand the school-age
child’s theory of mind and capacity to engage in cognitive self regulation.
- What applications of
information processing to academic learning, noting existing controversies
in teaching reading and mathematics to elementary school children? (pp. 291–293)
- What are the major
approaches to defining and measuring intelligence, including Sternberg’s triarchic theory and Gardner’s theory of multiple
intelligences? (pp. 293–296)
- Understand the evidence
indicating that both heredity and environment contribute to IQ, and
discuss cultural influences on mental test scores of ethnic minority
children. (pp. 296–299)
- What are the advances in
vocabulary, grammar, and pragmatics during middle childhood, and discuss
the advantages of bilingualism. (pp.
- How would you generate
solutions for improving the relationship between health care advocates and
those families with obese children?
- Compare and contrast views
on the nature of intelligence.
- What Is Intelligence? (p. 293)
- Select one of the following health problems of middle childhood:
myopia, obesity, asthma, or unintentional
injuries. Explain how both genetic and environmental factors contribute to
it. (pp. 277–281)
- What aspects of physical growth account for the long-legged
appearance of many 8- to12-year-olds? (pp. 276–277)
- Mastery of conservation provides one illustration of Piaget’s
- Explain how operational reasoning develops gradually. (pp.
- What is the evidence that specific experiences influence children’s
mastery of concrete operational tasks? (p. 286)
- Cite evidence that school-age children view the mind as an active,
constructive agent. (p. 291)
- Why is teaching both basic skills and understanding of concepts and
strategies vital for children’s solid mastery of reading and mathematics? (pp.
- After viewing a slide show on endangered species, second and fifth
graders were asked to remember as many animals as they could. Explain why
fifth graders recalled much more than second graders. (pp. 289–290)
- Using Sternberg’s triarchic theory and Gardner’s theory of
multiple intelligences, explain the limitations of current mental tests in
assessing the complexity of intelligence. (pp. 294–296)
- Summarize ethnic differences in IQ, and cite environmental factors
that contribute to them. (pp. 297–298)
- Explain how dynamic testing is consistent with Vygotsky’s
zone of proximal development and with scaffolding. (pp. 298–299
- Give examples of language progress that benefit from school-age
children’s greater language awareness. (pp. 299–300)
- What are ways that bilingual education can contribute to ethnic
minority children’s cognitive and academic development? (pp. 300–301)
CHAPTER 10: EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
- Explain Erikson’s stage of industry versus
inferiority, noting major personality changes. (pp. 314–315)
- Describe the development of the self
during middle childhood, noting changes in self-concept and self-esteem,
as well as factors that influence children’s self-evaluations. (pp. 315–318)
- Describe changes in self-conscious
emotions, understanding of emotional states, and emotional self-regulation
in middle childhood. (pp. 319–320)
- Trace the development of perspective
taking, and discuss the relationship between perspective taking and social
skills. (pp. 320–321)
- Describe changes in moral understanding
during middle childhood. (pp.
- Describe changes in peer relations during
middle childhood, including characteristics of peer groups and
friendships, and explain how these relationships contribute to children’s
social development. (pp. 322–324)
- Describe the four categories of peer
acceptance, noting how each is related to social behavior, and discuss
ways to help rejected children. (pp.
- Describe changes in gender-stereotyped
beliefs and gender identity during middle childhood, noting sex
differences and cultural influences. (pp.
- What are changes in the parent–child
relationship during middle childhood, including new issues confronting
parents and changes in parent–child communication? (p. 328)
- Describe changes in sibling relationships
during middle childhood, and compare the experiences and developmental
outcomes of only children with those of children who have siblings. (pp. 328–329)
- How do children’s adjustment to divorce
and blended families, noting the influence of parent and child
characteristics, as well as social supports within the family and
surrounding community. (pp.
- What is the impact of maternal employment
and dual-earner families on school-age children’s development, noting the
influence of social supports within the family and surrounding community,
and explain issues regarding child care for school-age children. (pp. 333–334)
- What are common fears and anxieties in
middle childhood, with particular attention to school phobia. (p. 334)
- What are factors related to child sexual
abuse, its consequences for children’s development, and ways to prevent
and treat it. (pp. 334–336)
- What are the factors that foster
resilience in middle childhood. (pp. 336–338)
CHAPTER 11: PHYSICAL
- What are the changing
conceptions of adolescence over the twentieth century? (pp. 344–345)
- Describe pubertal changes
in body growth, proportions, changing states of arousal, motor development,
and physical activity. (pp.
- Summarize changes in
sexual maturity over the teenage years, including individual and group
differences. (pp. 347–349)
- Cite factors that
influence the timing of puberty. (pp.
- Discuss adolescents’
reactions to the physical changes of puberty, noting factors that
influence their feelings and behavior. (pp. 349–351)
- Discuss the impact of
maturational timing on adolescent adjustment, noting sex differences and
immediate and long-term outcomes. (pp.
- Describe the nutritional
needs of adolescents, and cite factors related to serious eating disturbances
during the teenage years. (pp.
- Explain how factors within
the individual, family, and larger culture contribute to serious eating disorders.
- Discuss social and
cultural influences on adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. (pp. 354–355)
- Describe factors related
to the development of homosexuality, and discuss the unique adjustment problems
of gay and lesbian adolescents. (pp.
- Cite factors related to
sexually transmitted disease. (pp.
- Discuss factors related to
teenage pregnancy, the consequences of adolescent parenthood for
development, and prevention strategies. (pp. 358–361)
- Distinguish between
substance use and abuse, describe personal and social factors related to
each, and cite prevention strategies. (pp.
- Describe the major
characteristics of formal operational thought. (pp. 363–364)
- Discuss recent research on
formal operational thought and its implications for the accuracy of
Piaget’s formal operational stage. (pp.
- Explain how
information-processing researchers account for the development of
scientific reasoning during adolescence. (pp. 365–366)
- Describe typical reactions
of adolescents that result from new abstract reasoning powers. (pp. 367–369)
- Note sex differences in
mental abilities at adolescence, along with biological and environmental
factors that influence them. (pp.
- List factors that contribute to pubertal timing. Then summarize the
consequences of early versus late maturation for adolescent development. (pp.
- How might adolescent moodiness contribute to psychological
distancing between parents and adolescents? (Hint: Think about
bidirectional influences in parent-child relationships.) (pp. 350–351)
- Compare risk factors for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. How
do treatments and outcomes differ for the two disorders? (pp. 353–35)
- List characteristics common to effective pregnancy and substance
abuse prevention programs. Are these components well-suited to fostering
resiliency in at-risk adolescents? Explain. (Return to Chapter 1, page 10,
if you need to review factors that promote resiliency. (pp. 360, 362)
- Using the concepts of hypothetico-deductive
reasoning and propositional thought, illustrate the difference between
school-age children’s and adolescents’ cognition. (pp. 363–364)
- Adolescent idealism and criticism, although troublesome for parents,
are beneficial in the long run, to both the developing individual and
society. Explain why this is so. (p. 368)
CHAPTER 12: EMOTIONAL
AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE
- Discuss Erikson’s theory of identity
development. (pp. 382–383)
- Describe changes in self-concept and
self-esteem during adolescence. (pp.
- Describe the four identity statuses,
noting how each is related to psychological adjustment, and discuss
factors that influence identity development. (pp. 384–387)
- Describe Piaget’s theory of moral
development and Kohlberg’s extension of it, noting research that evaluates
the accuracy of each. (pp. 387–390)
- Discuss sex differences in moral
reasoning, with particular attention to Gilligan’s argument. (pp. 390–391)
- Describe the factors that influence moral
reasoning, and discuss the relationship between moral reasoning and
behavior. (pp. 391–393)
- Explain why early adolescence is a period
of gender intensification, and cite factors that promote the development
of an androgynous gender identity. (p.
- Discuss familial influences on adolescent
development, including the impact of the parent–child relationship, family
circumstances, and sibling interaction.
- Describe the characteristics of adolescent
friendships and peer groups, and discuss the contributions of each to
emotional and social development. (pp.
- Describe adolescent dating relationships. (p. 399)
- Discuss the influence of peer pressure
during adolescence, noting how parental behavior is related to adolescent
conformity. (pp. 399–400)
- Discuss factors related to adolescent
depression and suicide, along with approaches for prevention and treatment. (pp. 400–403)
- Discuss factors related to delinquency,
and cite strategies for prevention and treatment. (pp. 403–405)